My brother Wessel and I grew up plunge dipping cattle 6 days of the weak.  This had to be done according to law and was enforced.  All that was achieved in the process was the breeding of super ticks (resistant to poison). In the process of plunge dipping all cattle there were a small percentage of calves that could not swim.  These were identified and never dipped again.  Some grew into old cows that were never dipped and never had ticks on them.

Apart from ticks screw worm can be a problem at certain times of the year in our environment.  One particular cow (wild; joined the herd from the neighbouring property as a calf) that was never dipped nor handled, had a stubby horn that broke off resulting in screw worm infestation. In my mind I knew that she would die since I could not handle and treat her.  A few weeks later she was clear of screw worm.

It is general practice to deworm cattle in my environment.  I have never done it as a routine.

In 1986 I stopped dipping calves in my herd. This was followed with strategic spraying around the head / neck and udder area during the 4 wet months.  I noticed some animals had very few ticks on them.  This could have led to the selection of bulls for tick resistance.  However, politics and land expropriation postponed this exercise.

There is absolutely no doubt about the fact that certain African breeds, in particular, are resistant to ticks and the diseases they transmit.  We can exploit this by selection.

Who dipped cattle in Africa before the arrival of European cattle and chemical companies?